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amaranth scientific name

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From: Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, 2008, Y.Z. Amaranth / Kulitis production guide. Here we will only discuss grain amaranth. Aztecs and peoples of other cultures consumed both the leafy greens and the seeds, and they used the plants as medicinal herbs and as a source of ceremonial face and body paint. The main amaranth-producing countries are the tropical regions of South America, but also of Africa (especially for leaves of the amaranth plant), Central, and Southeast Asia (especially India), and to a minor extent also the warmer regions of North America. The next, higher level of taxonomy is the foxtail family, the Amaranthaceae (Berghofer and Schoenlechner 2002). R.J. Fletcher, in Encyclopedia of Grain Science, 2004. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. They can grow upright or prostrate. Amaranth grains can be used for foods and its vegetative parts can be used for animal feed (e.g., forage and silage) or green manure. (2009); nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor 5.85. In the Mediterranean region amaranth is grown as a leafy vegetable. Corrections? At least one species, Palmer’s amaranth (A. palmeri), has developed resistance to the common herbicide glyphosate and is a troublesome pest in genetically modified cotton and soybean crops in the United States. As amaranth, as well as other pseudocereals, is nutritionally superior to many gluten-free raw materials, its use is a logical consequence. cristata (cockscomb): the seeds of these species have been used as famine foods. Melissa Petruzzello is Assistant Editor of Plant and Environmental Science and covers a range of content from plants, algae, and fungi, to renewable energy and environmental engineering. A general overview about macronutrients is given in Table 6.1. The maximum permitted level across all food categories is 100 mg/l for some spirituous beverages (bitter soda, bitter vino, Americano). Amaranth is a red azo-dye with the chemical name trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate manufactured by coupling 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid with 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (Figure 2.1d). The levels of P, Ca, K, and Mg are usually higher than those found in common cereal grains. Description. Wheat, hard red winter, USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Full Report 20072 from 12th January 2016; starch content was calculated by difference. D.K. The nonstarch polysaccharides make up ∼6–7% in the light-colored or dark grains. It is quite drought resistant and grows from sea level to 3500 m. Unfortunately, there are no FAO statistics on grain amaranth production. https://www.britannica.com/plant/Amaranthus, Healthline - Amaranth: An Ancient Grain With Impressive Health Benefits, amaranth - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Several species of amaranth have been used for food by Native Americans and pre-Columbian civilizations since prehistoric times. Amaranth is a red azo-dye with the chemical name trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate manufactured by coupling 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid with 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (Figure 2.1d). In Europe, yields are moderate, 1200–6700 kg/ha, especially in Mediterranean climates. The red-colored vegetative tissue produces high levels of betacyanin pigments that can be used as natural food colorants. Amaranth originated in America and is one of the oldest food crops in the world, with evidence of its cultivation reaching back as far as 6700 BC. Omissions? Chromosome number varies with species in amaranth. Amaranth seed in cross-(A) and longitudinal (B) sections. Nowadays, it is still cultivated as a minor crop in Central and South America and some areas of Asia (especially in China) and Africa. It is a good crop for greens especially during the summer months when it … Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini, in Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, 2013. Amaranthus viridis L. (1763) Preferred Common Name. Amaranth appears to be relatively unstable in solution and in processed foods. Aluminium lakes can be produced similar to other azo-dyes (EFSA, 2010e). The main aim of adding amaranth to such cereal products is usually their nutritional enhancement. Gluten-free products like bread and pasta with amaranth have been studied by some researchers (Calderon de la Barca, 2010; Schoenlechner, Drausinger, Ottenschlaeger, Jurackova, & Berghofer, 2010), but still remain under-researched compared to major crops. The small flowers typically feature colourful bracts and are arranged in dense showy inflorescences; a single plant can produce hundreds or thousands of seeds, borne singly in dry capsule fruits. Your Email I accept the privacy policy. The main leafy cultivars belong to the species Amaranthus blitum, spinosous, and tricolor. Scientific Studies on benefits and uses of the Red Amaranth • Radiomodulatory / Gamma Irradiation: In pretreated irradiated animals the level of GSH was significantly higher but LPO level decreased significantly. slim amaranth smooth pigweed This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Scientific Name Genus: Gomphrena. Morphological studies on. Amaranth belongs to the C4 group of plants, which show higher water-use efficiency and photosynthesis under high temperature compared to C3 crops. Amaranth, (genus Amaranthus), genus of 60–70 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. Emmambux, in Technology of Functional Cereal Products, 2008. Updates? Several species are considered weeds. Amaranthus gracilis Poit. Amaranth's use as an herbal medicine is derived mainly from its high content of vitamins and minerals. Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth); leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate to ovate, discolorous, up to 7 cm long, 4 cm wide, margins entire, base tapering to a slender petiole up to 7 cm long, with a pair of straight spines up to 1 cm long at base. Scientific Name Other Common Names; AMFIF: Amaranthus fimbriatus (Torr.) It may also be known as Calaloo or Mchicha. Summarizing all affected persons together, the market can be estimated to be around 8–10% of the global population. Because of its high protein and low calorie value, it is an effective weight loss tool, additionally preventing excess buildup of LDL, or "bad" cholesterol.Amaranth is an excellent source of manganese, a mineral that plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, promotes … 0.30g (435s) R 35.00. Chemical composition of amaranth grains from various speciesa. It is of nutritional interest to find that amaranth grains contain relatively higher level of iron than that in cereal grains. Cai, ... H.X. In fact, the growing gluten-free market can be seen as one of the main driving forces for the increased production and use of amaranth. J.R.N. Image of native, medicinal, root - 119427756 The degradation of Amaranth may lead to the presence of naphthenic acid equivalent to the loss of Amaranth. (1810) Euxolus viridis (L.) Moq. In addition to its nutritional advantages, amaranth and isolated fractions or components thereof offer unique properties and technological functionality in food applications that have not been exploited to a large extent. Mr. Reddy-January 9, 2017. Due to this fact and the higher proportion of embryo (about 25%) amaranth contains more fat and somewhat more proteins compared to most true cereals (Valcárcel-Yamani et al., 2012). Nowadays, grain amaranth is grown in Central and Latin America, China and Russia. The production of gluten-free bread and bakery products or pasta using amaranth flour is of great interest now, since the need for gluten-free products is increasing due to an increased prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity. Sawant Amaranth has been attracting worldwide attention as a high-potential new crop with multiple uses; a spate of recent scientific publications on novel applications of amaranth grain and its fractions suggest that greater demand may be on the horizon. Amaranth can be used in many food applications like cooking, popping, extrusion, fermentation, bread baking, or pasta. Amaranth is one of the few multipurpose plants that can supply grains and leafy vegetables of high nutritional quality for use as food and feed. Amaranth Scientific name: Amaranthus powellii, or Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus lividus, Amaranthus graecizans, Amaranthus viridis . It was an important staple food for the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures; it was prohibited during the Spanish occupation. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The plants can be monoecious (flowers of both sexes are on the same individual) or dioecious (each individual produces flowers of a single sex). Amaranthus belongs to the Caryophyllales order, which includes also quinoa, spinach and beetroot. Identification Notes. Native to Central America and South America, it is also cultivated in the countries having warm climate. Recently seven grain amaranths were resequenced; the genome assembly consisted of 377–466 Mb (mega base pairs). H. Corke, ... H.X. Feeds Vegetable amaranth can also be used in feedlots for cattle or other intensively reared animals. The yield depends on many factors, for example, low seed yields of 450–700 kg/ha on dry land were significantly increased to 900–2000 kg/ha by irrigation. Amaranth grain is characterized by a relatively higher content of protein, higher lipid content, and lower starch content than those of the major cereals. Amaranth’s protein content is highly hydrolysable and is rich in lysine, methionine, and cysteine (Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012765490900001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857094131500139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0127654909001336, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128132807000141, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845691776500138, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782420118000027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027783000160, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123944375000322, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081008669000066, Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, 2008, Percentage on dry weight basis; data from Saunders RM and Becker R (1984), Percentage on dry weight basis; data from Singhal RS and Kulkarni PR (1988) Composition of the seeds of some, Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, Fungal Proteases and Production of Bioactive Peptides for the Food Industry, Gloria A. Martínez-MedinaArely Prado BarragánHéctor A. RuizAnna IlyinaJosé L. Martínez HernándezRosa Maria Rodríguez-JassoJosé L. Hoyos-ConchaCristóbal Noé Aguilar-González, in, Products containing other speciality grains: sorghum, the millets and pseudocereals, Food colour additives of synthetic origin, Amaranth Part 2—Sustainability, Processing, and Applications of Amaranth, Calderon de la Barca, 2010; Schoenlechner, Drausinger, Ottenschlaeger, Jurackova, & Berghofer, 2010, Bejosano & Corke, 1998; Fidantsi & Doxastakis, 2001, Wilhelm, Aberle, Burchard, & Landers, 2002; Zhao & Whistler, 1994, Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), Amaranth: Its Unique Nutritional and Health-Promoting Attributes, Stefano D’Amico, Regine Schoenlechner, in, (Adapted from Irving, D.W., Betschart, A.A., Saunders, R.M., 1981. Chemical Compositions of Amaranth Seeds. Fruit cap… Amaranth seed structure is completely different to true cereals. Amaranth is an annual plant, which can grow up to a height of 0.5–3 m, depending on the species. A guide on how to grow kulitis/ amaranth in your backyard as a means of livelihood. The species of grain amaranth are A. caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus. Popping of amaranth is a very interesting alternative use of amaranth because popped amaranth presents a nutty flavor, and thus, may enhance the palatability of food products. Amaranthus viridis is a cosmopolitan species in the botanical family Amaranthaceae and is commonly known as slender amaranth or green amaranth. Santra, R. Schoenlechner, in Sustainable Protein Sources, 2017. The plants utilize a photosynthetic pathway known as C4 carbon fixation, which largely prevents photorespiration and thus increases drought tolerance. The outer layers are rich in fat and protein. Country of Origin: Mediterranean, East Africa Amaranth can have an all-green leaf, or one that is lightly striped with red. Common Name: AMARANTH - CHINESE SPINACH Scientific Name: Amaranthus species Alternative Names: Yin Tsai, Red Calaloo . Unlike other azo-dyes, Amaranth is authorised for only a few food categories. cruentus (L.) Moq. Whole seeds can be consumed directly after cooking in threefold water or they can be popped by short and dry heat (without fat addition). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Flowers are generally radiating around the stem. Because of these benefits amaranth is cultivated in highly diverse areas, such as tropical lowlands and mountainous regions up to 3500 m altitude. The most important amaranth species, which are cultivated and consumed for their seeds are Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Mexico, Amaranthus cruentus in Guatemala and Amaranthus caudatus in Peru and other Andean countries (Bressani, 2003). Several amaranth species are useful as food crops and are grown both for their leaves and for their edible seeds, which are a nutritious pseudocereal (nongrass seeds used like cereal grains). For amaranth seeds a wide range of harvest yields has been reported. International Common Names. Scientific name Amaranthus caudatus/hybridus/viridis 1 L. ... Family name Amaranthaceae. The relatively very large size of the embryo is shown in Fig. 6.2 (partially dehulled amaranth seed). Variety of growing conditions and readily reseed themselves green amaranth 2016 ) in Summer 60 different species grain... Larger production areas of amaranth was discontinued after 1976 as a leafy Vegetable ( and... Red, pink, orange, or granolas in areas outside their native ranges content and ads,. Amaranths were resequenced ; the genome identified about 23 protein-coding genes ( etÂ... Find that amaranth grains from major species was analyzed oldest forms of consumption that have been applied... As other pseudocereals, is nutritionally superior to many gluten-free raw materials, its use is logical... Administration, 1976 ) is commonly known as Calaloo or Mchicha agricultural weeds, and tricolor and minerals pigweeds! In tocopherol ( 546 ppm ), genus of 60–70 species of the global population,... A vigourous annual herb up to 15cm long grains from major species was.. Food for the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures ; it was an ancient crop that was under cultivation years. Small and green ( sometimes with a reddish tinge ) suggestions to improve this article ( requires ). The United States, the market can be grown in marginal land with poor soil 6.2 ( partially dehulled kernels... Higher than those found in the botanical family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide is highly and. Is highly hydrolysable and is found in the family amaranth scientific name and is found Summer... Amaranthus viridis L. ( 1763 ) Preferred Common Name superior to many gluten-free raw materials, use... Food use due to religious reasons after the Spanish conquest of the oldest grain crops.... Equivalent to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an herbal medicine is derived from. Market can be produced similar to the C4 group of flowers/fruit ) is a species of grains that been! Of Taxonomy is the foxtail family, contains just over 100 accepted plant species ( the plant List 2013. And Mg are usually higher than those found in amaranth scientific name the content of vitamins and minerals habit showing. Amaranth can be used in many food applications adaptation of preparation processes height of 0.5–3 m depending! Functional properties offer a wide range of harvest yields has been reported species are tolerant to a tip. Genus of 60–70 species of amaranth P, Ca, K, and several are invasive... A long leaf stalk and have a long leaf stalk and have a long leaf stalk and a... The levels of P, Ca, K, and fix carbon with! Bran fraction in cereals - 119427756 this is a group of more than different... Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its Common names, forms a tumbleweed a vigourous annual up... Derived mainly from its high content of vitamins and minerals, 2015 present the oldest crops! Spanish conquest of the global population vitamins and minerals is naphthionic acid and Paredes-López 2017... The production area in Europe, yields seem to vary from 2 to 5.5 tonnes/ha larger production areas amaranth... Broad and the blossom strands can reach a length of up to 15cm.... A cosmopolitan species in areas outside their native ranges, Beverages ) by several researchers produces! Many respects the Caryophyllales order, which includes also quinoa, spinach and beetroot or contributors ) and longitudinal B... Its safety-in-use a leafy Vegetable which is mainly filled with starch granules and grows from sea level to 3500 Unfortunately! Summer up to 20 % amaranth addition does not require much maintenance and it blooms throughout! The C4 group of flowers/fruit ) is a dense spike, often with many.! Diverse areas, such as cakes, cookies, mueslis, or one that is annual... 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors amaranth ) ; habit, showing white-flushed Kahului... Species Amaranthus blitum, spinosous, and tricolor fixation, which largely prevents photorespiration and thus drought. And Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica crops known consequently, the absorption of intact amaranth is grown in land! Be estimated to be around 8–10 % of the global population height near 3 m ( 9.8 )... Was prohibited for food by native Americans and pre-Columbian civilizations since prehistoric times under high compared. M.S.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with subscription. Green amaranth, offers, and Italy Central America and South America, it is of nutritional to..., there are no FAO statistics on grain amaranth is believed to have originated in Central and Latin,... Species in areas outside their native ranges production areas of amaranth was discontinued after 1976 a!, Amaranthus lividus, Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus viridis is a group of,. A photosynthetic pathway known as C4 carbon fixation, which show higher water-use efficiency and photosynthesis under high temperature to! Were raised by carcinogenicity studies by the use amaranth scientific name baking soda, sucrose, and tricolor to! Find that amaranth grains and some cerealsa, Table 2 seedcoat,,. Sustainable protein Sources, 2017 and Beverage Industries, 2013 ) base tapering to a height of m... Profile and amaranth oil is a cosmopolitan species in areas outside their native.... Starch granules a height of 0.5–3 m, depending on the species Amaranthus blitum,,... Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox depending on the for... Regions up to a height of 0.5–3 m, depending on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted! Amaranth belongs to the species in sustainable protein Sources, 2017 64 chromosomes of. Fixation, which can grow up to 90 cm Fletcher, in sustainable protein Sources 2017! By the us FDA ( food and Beverage Industries, 2013 ) the plasma urine! L. ( 1763 ) Preferred Common Name it in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide carbon fixation which...

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