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economic importance of grassland located in middle europe

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0.951 2.633 l -3.28 2.237 -4.177 1.248 -4.177 -0.114 c 0.82 0.847 0.643 scn -2.054 1.386 -2.693 0.95 -2.693 0 c Generalized Silk Road refers throughout Eurasia or North Africa and East Africa, including the general term of the long-distance business and cultural exchange lines began to form from antiquity. 1.539 -3.623 1.866 -2.93 1.866 -2.208 c B B -0.694 0 l 50.015 515.287 16.664 16.664 re -0.701 3.506 l B (Presentation:)Tj -0.282 1.361 -0.01 1.233 0.03 0.807 c h -2.693 -0.95 -2.054 -1.386 -1.346 -1.386 c ���L-�, (���MM�,�ɩ��f�!��C�G�w��>����Xe������*��]p��b!fFF��#S���TǤ�̼l��������D ��4)'�8#5E!�R�-�S�-?��X�4/E!8?��h@012�����}�G�}������g�,�C���U��n��h�^�����{ <> 0.742 1.683 0.025 1.931 -0.495 1.931 c 0. 0. -0.346 0.693 l Global Change. -1.248 3.506 l and to the regularisation of water regimes, to the purica-, ucts and services at aordable prices, addressing the social, landscape. 6.729 28.233 5.015 27.904 3.893 26.98 c 0.791 -0.634 0.693 -0.97 0.693 -1.262 c 0 0 m h 2.861 -4.208 l [(An int)5(erna)5(tional t)5(eam o)5(f grassland e)5(xper)-10(ts pr)5(epar)5(ed this book. h -1.024 -2.064 -1.163 -1.668 -1.163 -1.332 c H�D�{L[e��[h?��^[q��f7������d��H�Xh�E��ҍWuG��e�kS�e 578.486 326.228 16.664 16.664 re Q First, we showed that emergent plant optical types (POTs), obtained through agglomerative hierarchical clustering of optical traits, are well suited to represent trait variation among locally co-occurring species (Chapter 4). /T1_4 1 Tf -0.454 0 l above-ground biomass production was reduced less in future than in current climate. They are used to grow staple crops such as wheat and corn. Grasslands are important habitats for many groups of taxa. [(V)35(alue Ar)5(eas \(HNV ar)5(eas\) and ar)5(e thus int)5(egra)5(t)5(ed into EU a)5(gricult)5(ural polic)-5(y)60(. -1.757 -0.485 -1.188 -0.841 -0.445 -0.841 c -1.45 2.119 -1.687 1.911 -1.687 1.51 c Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 0.951 2.633 l q 1 0 0 1 497.9847 85.7125 cm -0.678 -3.554 l /Perceptual ri -0.98 -3.183 -1.034 -3.049 -1.064 -2.916 c 50.015 498.998 16.664 16.664 re -0.03 -3.005 -0.208 -3.183 -0.579 -3.183 c -0.094 -0.218 -0.291 0.069 -0.782 0.069 c The steam-distilled oils from wild and cultivated Cymbopogon validus (Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy (Gramineae) and Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) By using the structural dynamics method, this study quantified the changes in the food supply capacity (FSC) of alpine grassland ecosystem and sensitivity to significant variables. q 1 0 0 1 433.7975 121.6336 cm 0.976 0.98 0.965 scn -0.812 0.802 -0.713 0.337 -0.713 0 c Q W n h 50.015 613.018 16.664 16.664 re Therefore, in grazing-based systems forage availability (quality and quantity) is one of the most important concepts. B The remaining 60% of land is also affected by humans. The standard of biomass is 1244 Pg and an annual NPP to 132.1. [( high natur)31(e v)10(alue)]TJ Natural grasslands grow where trees cannot establish, in … -4.354 15.701 -3.76 12.731 v h -2.507 25.726 -3.166 26.585 -4.156 27.179 c The economic importance of grasslands. S 0 -3.554 l 578.486 244.785 16.664 16.664 re -0.693 1.792 -0.702 2.119 -1.143 2.119 c -0.547 0.887 l 0 0.95 -0.639 1.386 -1.347 1.386 c The strategic importance of this crossroads between continents and its relationship to the world conflict were again emphasized by the clash of arms in an area where man first raised sword to man. Ocial Journal of the EU of 21.10.2003 L 270/1-69. The concept of plant functional traits highly contributes to such understanding. -0.857 30.741 -0.857 30.015 y 0.951 2.633 l hurst and King (1998) show substantial dierences in, cultivars. -0.703 -1.262 l EMC From the point of view of both agricultural and environmentally oriented policies, there is high need for up-to-date information on the area and changes of permanent grassland and arable land [24][25][26], ... 300 million ha). As in the savanna, seasonal drought and occasional fires are very important to biodiversity. 0 0 m Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. -0.639 -1.386 0 -0.95 0 0 c 11. 1 0 obj -1.005 1.153 -0.832 1.361 -0.505 1.361 c -1.044 0.807 m Tf In Belgium the area of grassland decreased in the last decennia, like in the other Member States of the EU and is mainly replaced by the cultivation of maize. The analysis of root symbiosis is necessary for a large number of actions in grassland: assessment of phytocoenosis stability with the understanding of mycoheterotrophy level for each species; future expansion of invasive plants in relation with secondary and tertiary successions; integrative models of plant-microorganism-climate interactions and survival potential in new climatic conditions. B q 1 0 0 1 415.3078 128.7597 cm Your email address will not be published. The intermediate figures take into account cropland pastureland forest use and conversion; the overall estimate of human use is 42.6 Pg of NPP/year of 19.0% (42.6/224.5) of NPP (30.7% on land and 2.2% on seas). 0.163 -3.519 0.47 -3.623 0.757 -3.623 c B e challenges we had in the W, sources, located at the other side of the “Iron Cu, on average about 15% of their people, being active in agri-, culture. B 0 0 m -1.258 1.753 -0.763 1.31 -0.588 0.402 c 7.554 -2.194 l f endstream 1.444 -4.537 1.289 -4.589 1.114 -4.641 c 0 -1.818 TD Across all stressors and their combinations, future climate-grown plants coped better with stress, i.e. 0.213 2.633 l In terms of the dependence of humans on food at global level, although livestock products are not as important as cereals in food security, the importance of livestock products has been emphasized as that basic level of food necessary for survival (FAO, 1982;1992;1993a;1993b; ... Grassland-based livestock as the key physical capital of local herdsmen' livelihood, and the interrelation among livestock, grassland and climate change determines the complexity and importance of the livestock production and food supply system in alpine pastoral area (Campbell and Knowles, 2011;Fang et al., 2016;Fang et al., 2015;Fang, 2013). Most o)5(f our grasslands ar)5(e par)-10(t o)5(f traditional a)5(gricult)5(ural )]TJ T* -1.004 1.153 -0.832 1.361 -0.504 1.361 c Grassland is by far the first land use in the agricultural area (AA) in Europe. -0.282 1.361 -0.01 1.233 0.03 0.807 c -5.342 -3.94 l endobj -0.155 1.536 l -3.115 7.105 l -0.082 -1.402 l While the percentages of decreaser, increaser and invader species were 16.2, 12.4 and 71.4, those of annual, biennial and perennial species were 31.9, 2.9 and 65.2, respectively. Rainfall is moderate. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, (BUL/017/06) “Implementation of farm gate nutrient balances in Bulgaria: a management tool towards sustainable agriculture” in the framework of the Flemish Government Cooperation program with the candidate member states of Central and Eastern Europe, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Floristic Patterns and Qualities of Forage Species from Mountainous Rangeland in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey, Changes in the food supply capacity of alpine grassland ecosystem: A dialectic synthesis of natural and anthropogenic drivers, Selecting Relevant Biological Variables Derived from Sentinel-2 Data for Mapping Changes from Grassland to Arable Land Using Random Forest Classifier, DINARIC KARST POLJES - NATURE CONSERVATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, Exploitation and Management of Low Input Grassland Systems, Recent Shrinkage and Fragmentation of Bluegrass Landscape in Kentucky, Characterizing and understanding grassland ecosystem functioning. 9.971 -1.222 l f However, the dry … -1.846 -1.841 -1.698 -1.45 -1.258 -1.45 c 0 0 m 0.663 0 l [(G)5(rasslands ar)5(e an impor)-10(t)-10(ant par)-10(t o)5(f E)15(uropean na)5(t)5(ur)5(e. This is il)-9(lustra)5(t)5(ed by the f)10(ac)-5(t tha)5(t )]TJ h /CS0 cs 0 0 0 scn B B Therefore, promising alternative, or at least complementary, approaches deserve further study. 0. T* 0 0 m Our results showed that recent land use change across the Bluegrass Region is characterized by grassland decline, cropland expansion, forest spread, and suburban sprawl. f 9.971 -0.139 l Q 8.247 27.772 8.247 28.167 v Q f 0 0 m 0 0 m -1.979 18.273 -2.177 18.669 -2.441 19.065 c Modern int)5(ensiv)5(e a)5(gricult)5(ur)5(e is a thr)5(ea)5(t to the sur)-10(vival o)5(f semi-na)5(t)5(ural or )]TJ 0. The European agricultural policy is not simple and needs to accommodate also social and environmental requirements. Comparison of the feeding value of diploid and, agricultural ecosystems and carbon storag, Chagonda, L. S., C. Makanda and J. C. C. Dewhurst, R. J., P .J King (1998). 11. 0 0 m q 1 0 0 1 463.4599 128.877 cm 0 -2.182 TD Mans impact on the biosphere is measured in terms of net primary production (NPP). Q use change : a meta analysis. B %���� 0.924 18.339 0.726 18.932 0.924 19.526 c 0.792 -0.634 0.694 -0.97 0.694 -1.262 c /T1_1 1 Tf -6.342 7.033 l 578.486 342.516 16.664 16.664 re History of Europe - History of Europe - Trade and the “Atlantic revolution”: The new importance of northwestern Europe in terms of overall population and concentration of large cities reflects in part the “Atlantic revolution,” the redirection of trade routes brought about by the great geographic discoveries. /T1_4 1 Tf 578.486 163.01 16.664 16.664 re 50.015 825.101 16.664 16.664 re -0.402 3.372 -0.959 2.815 -1.64 2.815 c W n -6.201 20.45 -5.41 18.405 y q 1 0 0 1 390.1869 121.7265 cm h It follows from the above that effectively monitoring the state of and changes in the use of agricultural land with the help of remote sensing is a highly relevant topic. 0.91 0.875 0.118 scn 0 4.055 l -4.375 0.972 l -6.342 0 l 498.985 93.391 -0.694 0.644 re Deteremine the effect of irradiation on bioactive properties of fresh herbs. Grasslands: mixtures of grass, clover and other leguminous species, dicotyledonous, herbs and shrubs, contribute to a high degree to the struggle against erosion and to the regularization of water regimes, to the purification of fertilizers and pesticides and to biodiversity. Besides its role as basic nutrient for herbivores and ruminants grasslands have opportunities for adding value by exploiting positive health. 0.743 0.48 l -2.341 2.815 -2.867 3.383 -2.867 4.073 c -1.816 -2.916 l h h [(impr)5(ession o)5(f the f)15(ul)-9(l variety o)5(f grasslands in E)15(urope, f)15(rom T)60(ur)-5(k)10(ey to Ir)5(eland and f)15(rom )]TJ -2.054 1.386 -2.693 0.95 -2.693 0 c 6.944 -0.027 l 115.385803 114.320801 Tm Academicpres Cluj-Napoca. 494.708 87.341 -0.693 0.643 re 108.385803 114.320801 Tm 50.015 711.081 16.664 16.664 re h -0.701 0 l f 417.38 121.727 -0.495 4.63 re The Steppe, belt of grassland that extends 5,000 miles (8,000 km) from Hungary in the west through Ukraine and Central Asia to Manchuria in the east. Besides its role as basic nutrient for herbivores and ruminants, grasslands have opportunities for an adding value by exploiting positive health characteristics in animal products from grassland and through the delivery of environmental benefits. We focused on two functionally distinct species that are non-native and invasive in Belgium: the annual forb Impatiens glandulifera Royle, and the rhizomatous perennial forb Solidago gigantea Ait. 1.299 -0.402 l 0.743 0.356 l -0.165 0.825 l 0. iii) The continuing increase of FSC in the past 30 years from 1984 to 2014 was due to the significant increase of precipitation and NPP in the growing season of alpine grassland. -2.413 -3.712 l q 1 0 0 1 440.4294 124.2119 cm 0.924 29.883 l 0.742 0.48 l q 1 0 0 1 489.0698 91.2179 cm f 0 1.944 l Soil C stocks increase after land use changes from native forest to pasture (+ 8%), crop to pasture (+ 19%), crop to plantation (+ 18%), and crop to secondary forest (+ 53%). 0.005 -0.841 0.53 -0.634 0.713 0 c -0.639 -1.386 0 -0.95 0 0 c be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. q 1 0 0 1 490.2037 87.9498 cm 0.25 w 4 M Q q 1 0 0 1 504.8453 87.0292 cm 0 -1.818 TD year 2000 about 55 million ha of grasslands. h 0.743 0.356 l 0.929 0.898 0.4 scn -9.971 0 l 578.486 97.856 16.664 16.664 re -0.155 0 l © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Q /T1_2 1 Tf 11. -2.857 -2.094 -3.795 -1.186 -3.651 0 c -1.881 -0.802 -1.981 -0.337 -1.981 0 c /T1_4 1 Tf 3.233 9.697 4.355 15.899 5.806 19.131 c 1.385 2.177 2.308 5.937 v The grassland area decreased by 14.4%, with an interior (or intact) grassland shrinkage of 5%, during the study period. The Shrinking Grasslands Unfortunately, human farming and development has caused the grassland biome to … Q By this research the authors aimed to analyse the evolution and management of low-input grassland from a specific area in the Apuseni Mountains, in order to define what can be the result of a low input grassland system on the botanical composition of the grasslands and on the income of the farmers. The Romanian part of this grassland is one of the major grasslands in Europe considering the fact that there is a lack of grasslands in Europe. 578.486 32.702 16.664 16.664 re These geographic c)-5(ase st)5(udies ar)5(e pr)5(eceded by thema)5(tic chapt)5(ers on )]TJ This study presents a methodical, systematic procedure using the random forest classifier and its internal metric of mean decrease accuracy (MDA) to select the most suitable predictors to detect changes from permanent grassland to arable land. -1.881 -0.802 -1.98 -0.337 -1.98 0 c 0 0 m In addition a full description of Flanders area with special attention to its grassland management is given, such that one can make a comparation between those two different cultures: the Province of East Flanders, Belgium and the area of Apuseni Mountains, Cluj County, Romania. -1.743 -0.402 l The soil in temperate grassland biome is especially fertile. /T1_3 1. 0 -0.547 -0.619 -0.897 -1.568 -0.897 c q 1 0 0 1 419.8555 126.3569 cm Q -2.693 -0.95 -2.054 -1.386 -1.346 -1.386 c were tested in the form of a time series from the Sentinel-2 satellite, and the most suitable ones were selected. q 1 0 0 1 501.4744 93.0793 cm In the temperate zones of the earth, between the equator and the polar regions. /T1_4 1. Shoriwa Chagonda. -0.693 1.792 -0.703 2.119 -1.143 2.119 c 487.06 84.396 -0.693 3.554 re -0.713 0 m 0. On the contrary, human factors like warm shed area, density of road, capacity for access to information, contributed to 28.7% of the total FSC. 53:219-224. policy. 0. In the Flemish part, dairy farming is mostly practised, while in Wallonia suckling cows (highly muscled race of the Belgian White Blue) for meat production are hold. 0.485 5.29 l -5.796 0 l the date provided for the area aid applications for 2003 to. 494.708 84.396 -0.693 2.633 re Second, we demonstrated that optical traits can contribute to an enhanced understanding of the causal pathways of environmental and anthropogenic pressures on ecosystem functioning, more specifically by studying the case of plant invasion (Chapter 5). h 0.941 0.914 0.506 scn The overall estimate for human use if 7.2 Pg of organic matter/year or 3% of total NPP/year. Tf 578.486 163.01 16.664 16.664 re -1.981 0.337 -1.881 0.802 -1.347 0.802 c 2.771 26.056 1.715 24.935 y Therefore, grasslands have become of primary interest for society, politics and research. q However, the use of functional traits is to a great extent constrained by its limited potential for generalization across time and space. In fact grasslands contribute to a high degree to the struggle against erosion and to the regularizing of water regimes, to the purification of fertilizers and pesticides and to biodiversity. /T1_0 1 Tf 1.153 -2.569 1.03 -3.054 0.585 -3.054 c -1.163 -1.332 m ere is obvious potential to exploit this nding, More research is needed to establish the factors determin-. A dis-, states must be 5.75% by Directive 2003/30/EC. 0 -0.391 l f q 1 0 0 1 486.1093 90.4458 cm 172.211807 114.320801 Tm 0.973 0.957 0.773 scn In the present study biomass productivity were examined in natural mounatins grassland in the region Gutai Mountains. /GS0 gs -0.68 -1.888 -1.186 -2.094 -1.805 -2.094 c -9.971 -2.083 l -6.343 7.033 l -0.694 -1.262 l q 1 0 0 1 476.6852 85.7125 cm Despite these technical recommendations and encouraging outlook, in practice, spectral measurements of individual herbaceous species in the field turned out challenging, because these species generally have tiny leaves and grow in ecosystems with small scale heterogeneity. Mapping the conditions and changes of permanent grasslands is thus very important. -0.282 1.361 -0.01 1.233 0.03 0.807 c Besides its role as basic nutrient for herbivores and ruminants, grasslands have opportunities for an adding value by exploiting positive health characteristics in animal products from grassland and through the delivery of environmental benefits. 191.328812 75.3871613 Tm 0 0 m Q 578.486 130.433 16.664 16.664 re (69,95 euro)Tj Having clarified and advanced the technological and methodological capabilities of hyperspectral remote sensing for the quantification of grassland traits, this dissertation aimed at taking this know-how one step further to address two leading issues in functional and community ecology. -0.727 0 l -1.044 0.807 m -5.888 0 l -1.163 -0.718 -0.876 -0.53 -0.619 -0.53 c -1.718 2.247 l 578.486 81.568 16.664 16.664 re 0 -1.818 TD 50.015 564.152 16.664 16.664 re Q -0.547 7.033 l Young nursery crop/seedlings (20–30 cm high) contained oil with myrcene (20.6%), geraniol (17.1%) and germacrene-d-4-ol (8.3%) as the major components. -0.055 -0.188 -0.252 -0.287 -0.446 -0.287 c 506.904 84.396 -0.694 2.633 re -0.639 -1.386 0 -0.95 0 0 c -3.032 1.413 -2.774 1.186 -2.279 1.073 c -0.901 2.633 l [(S)10(w)5(eden to Spain. Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Rests of the species belonged to other families (52.4%) dominated by families such as Asteraceae (13/55) and Lamiaceae (6/55), of which 26 species were weeds harmful to animals. H�bd`ab`dd�pv� 19 0 0 19 455.4615 764.3309 Tm -0.454 0 l -1.723 -3.054 -1.846 -2.569 -1.846 -2.257 c -1.708 2.247 l These 24 c)-5(ase st)5(udies giv)5(e the r)5(eader a clear )]TJ 0.693 -2.633 l 0 0 m )]TJ 446.1 121.727 -0.495 4.63 re is species, pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. 0 1.547 -1.063 2.237 -2.052 2.237 c -3.341 3.485 -3.032 2.774 -2.104 2.506 c 0.475 2 -2.557 0.763 -2.557 1.774 c -2.381 2.633 l T* f -1.258 1.753 -0.763 1.31 -0.588 0.402 c -4.538 -7.126 -5.888 -6.074 -5.888 -3.96 c stream [(Pric)10(e: )]TJ /T1_3 1 Tf Soil fungi interconnect all plant species and in addition improve their nutrition, with an increase in plant's ability to compete and reduction of abiotic stress. f 0 0 0 SCN -1.715 3.694 0 0 y Europe is the second-smallest continent.Only Oceania has less landmass. 0.006 -0.842 0.53 -0.634 0.713 0 c -1.718 2.247 l 0 0 m [(which need special a)5(tt)5(ention. The major components from wild and cultivated E. muticus were geranial (40.1–44.8%), neral (26.0–35.4%) and geranyl acetate (1.8–8.6%). 448.225 119.901 447.585 119.345 446.853 119.354 c q 1 0 0 1 444.544 125.439 cm Half of the communities were exposed to ambient climate conditions (current climate) and the other half were continuously kept 3 °C above ambient temperatures and at 620 ppm CO2 (future climate). Hopefully the newest CAP vision of the E, multifunctional task for the farmer will t with the devel-. ... Grassland ecosystems have the highest microbial and plant diversity, which stimulates the simultaneous presence of positive rhizosphere interactions. Temperate grassland biome climate varies depending on the season. -2.908 0.918 l Milk and meat production realized on grassland under rotational or continous grazing (set stocking) in different european countries. ( 20% discount)Tj Q [(biodiv)5(erse grasslands across the whole o)5(f E)15(urope. FAPAR, canopy water content (CWC), and LAI seemed to be the most suitable. 9.971 -6.18 l The effective mesh size, which represents the degree of landscape fragmentation in a system, decreased from 6629.84 to 1816.58 for the entire Bluegrass Region. 578.486 293.651 16.664 16.664 re ii) More intense snow disaster had a larger negative impact on FSC. -1.876 -2.208 -1.376 -2.648 -0.742 -2.648 c The area of permanent grassland is strongly influenced by agricultural subsidy policies. -0.356 0.693 l The proposed change detection procedure achieved a very high accuracy of more than 95% within the study site with an area of 8766 km2. -2.557 2.671 0.072 1.99 0.072 4.063 c 0. 0.733 0.776 0.459 scn 50.015 662.216 16.664 16.664 re Bot. Grasslands are important for in situ conservation of genetic resources. -0.693 1.599 l -1.648 1.931 -1.757 0.916 -1.757 0.599 c f q 1 0 0 1 467.3078 116.8176 cm -0.495 -0.402 l T* B This paper analyses the likely impact of climate change on European grasslands in relation to their present agro-climatic conditions. 50.015 596.729 16.664 16.664 re Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. -1.981 0.337 -1.882 0.802 -1.346 0.802 c Grasslands may occur naturally or as the result of human activity. 0.98 0.973 0.855 scn q 1 0 0 1 473.5866 85.7125 cm 1.005 -1.45 1.153 -1.841 1.153 -2.257 c )]TJ In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. h Q ment with high fertiliser (nitrogen) input has resulted, fodder beets, etc. The number of patches increased from 108,338 to 126,874. In other r)5(egions in E)15(urope, )]TJ 6.944 0 l It is a beneficial-balanced process between plants and fungi, where the fungal hyphae colonize root of plants and increase the absorption process of nutrients. h Epobio project, Cplpress, Ed. In support of such programs, it is essential to understand how these ecosystems function so that, based on scientific insights, effective management practices can be implemented, and progress towards policy goals can be monitored. 11. h Grassland biomes can be found in the middle latitudes, in the interiors of continents. by including explicit links to ecosystem services or studying other drivers of change such climate change and fertilization. 1.44 0.069 1.485 0.064 1.53 0.059 c 50.015 531.575 16.664 16.664 re Q The presented concepts can be easily extended to study various ecological cutting-edge issues, e.g. f 0. 11. A, about the role of white clover in grassland are av. f Q Q -0.812 -1.094 -1.02 -0.851 -1.466 -0.851 c -3.375 0 l Grassland ecosystems are very important for a wide variety of different reasons. 11. 0.743 0.48 l f [(This book is writt)5(en f)5(or both specialists and non-)-5(specialists, the la)5(tt)5(er including politicians )]TJ 0 -1.818 TD -0.356 0.693 l 0.91 0.875 0.118 scn -2.279 1.052 l 1.866 -1.297 1.351 -0.851 0.772 -0.851 c 11. Geranyl acetate (4.5%), linalol (4.5%) and borneol (2.9%) were notable minor components. B Origin of Grasslands; Importance of Grasslands; In many areas, Grasslands separate Forests from Deserts. f 0. -0.346 0.693 l This road is also known as the “overland Silk Road” or “Oasis Silk Road”. -2.393 -0.299 l 0 0 0 SCN Intermediate or conservative estimates have been included. Petagram (Pg) is used to calculate organic matter; this is equivalent to 10 to the 15th power grams or 10 to the 9th power metric tons. There is a proper system of irrigation and flood-control that has made this utilization possible. 448.225 126.357 l _���N�.7}�t��M����'Μ���W�;�yx �p_�endstream [(habit)-10(a)5(ts in sev)5(eral places in E)15(urope. -0.664 -2.688 -0.837 -3.054 -1.278 -3.054 c The climate here is continental. -0.98 -3.183 -1.035 -3.049 -1.064 -2.916 c -5.796 0 l 0 0 595.276 841.89 re 0 -4 TD 446.739 119.777 l -2.381 0 l f -1.005 1.153 -0.832 1.361 -0.505 1.361 c -9.971 6.499 l f 0 0 m -2.054 1.386 -2.693 0.95 -2.693 0 c /T1_4 1. B)10(iodiv)5(ersity-rich grasslands ar)5(e stil)-9(l )]TJ -1.164 -3.623 -0.857 -3.519 -0.688 -3.222 c 0.243 0.243 0.251 SCN q 108.385803 114.320801 Tm <> 0 -45.169 l Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with, The European agricultural policy is not simple and needs to accommodate also social and environmental requirements. Agrobot. <> 0 -3.95 0.01 -4.239 0.691 -4.239 c The global production of human food is 1/7 Pg for grains and for human and livestock fed or .85 Pg of dry grain material and .3 Pg in nongrain dry material with dry grain material and .3 Pg in nongrain dry material with a subtraction of 20% for water content. 0 0 m 0 0 m Researches have shown that grassland biomes have a high microbial and plant diversity, which stimulate the simultaneous presence of positive interactions in rhizosphere. S Eects of extended wilting. -0.03 -2.262 l 5.41 25.858 7.521 27.508 y The relevance of suitable predictors takes into account the date of the satellite image, the overall accuracy of change detection, and the time required for calculations. But even for grassland it is very difficult to create a good frame for its different tasks (1) the provision of forage for livestock, (2) protection and conservation of soil and water resources, (3) furnishing a habitat for wildlife, both flora and fauna and (4) contribution to the attractiveness of the landscape. T* According to the European Commission, the average contribution of insect pollination to European agriculture is at least 22 billion EUR a year5. /T1_3 1 Tf Tf Therefore, we developed a novel in situ measurement procedure (Chapter 3). -2.857 5.692 -3.341 4.816 -3.341 4.042 c -0.401 2.703 0 2.401 0 1.822 c 113.385803 691.320801 Tm -4.177 -1.547 -3.207 -2.578 -1.867 -2.578 c Livestock plays a crucial rule in the rural economy. Q 1.47 -0.634 1.396 -0.634 1.332 -0.634 c f h Q -0.547 0.887 l 0 -2.633 l -0.025 -1.663 -0.144 -2.064 -0.614 -2.064 c -2.705 19.461 -5.344 23.682 -6.795 25.001 c 447.379 119.798 447.729 120.118 447.729 121.221 c 113.385803 715.322815 Tm The low calculation of human (5 billion persons) consumption of plants at a caloric intake of 2500 kilocalories/person/day is .91 Pg of organic matter which equals .76 Pg of vegetable matter. 0.629 -3.708 0.663 -2.95 0.663 -2.495 c h We revealed that both invasive alien species (IAS) altered aboveground biomass (decrease and increase under I. glandulifera and S. gigantea respectively), litter stabilization (decrease under both IAS) and soil available phosphorus (increase under both IAS) through selection effects, rather than through decreasing the functional diversity of the community. Summers are usually hot, and temperatures can go up to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. B -0.638 -1.386 0 -0.95 0 0 c Of the total species, 20 were from Poaceae (19.0%), 30 were from Poaceae (28.6%). . -0.547 7.033 l -1.743 0 l Finally they have aesthetic role and recreational function as far as they provide public access that other agricultural uses do not allow. 0.02 Tc 20 0 0 20 113.3858 729.3309 Tm 2.949 7.105 l h /GS0 gs B <> -0.727 0 l Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. -3.413 1.248 -2.815 1.753 -2.052 1.753 c 113.385803 691.320801 Tm -5.796 6.146 l 0 0 0 SCN In Eurasia, they are called the Steppes, and stretch eastwards from the shores of the Black Sea to the foothills of the Altai Mountains. -1.451 2.119 -1.688 1.911 -1.688 1.51 c 0.965 0.945 0.69 scn 0 0 m -1.044 0.807 m [(these grasslands ar)5(e much mor)5(e loc)-5(alised or mainly f)5(ound in prot)5(ec)-5(t)5(ed ar)5(eas. Q Evidently, successful adaptation to climate change was critical to combat the climatic adversely impact on FSC. -0.727 0 l -0.327 -2.648 -0.153 -2.455 -0.039 -2.252 c 0 0 m Cultivated mature plants contained myrcene (11.6–20.2%), (E)-β-ocimene (6.0–12.2%), borneol (3.9–9.5%) and geraniol (1.7–5.0%) and camphene (3.3–8.3%) as the major components. 0 1.547 -1.062 2.237 -2.052 2.237 c 11. 0 -3.156 l f It consists of 28 different types of species of plants. 0.005 -0.842 0.53 -0.634 0.713 0 c This study is the first attempt to quantify recent grassland shrinkage and fragmentation in the Bluegrass Region. Ocial Journal of the EU of 20.11.2004 L345/1-134. -0.713 -0.337 -0.812 -0.802 -1.346 -0.802 c For carbon sequestration, developmen, production of food and feed is the most important. 13.787 27.903 14.119 28.233 13.063 28.101 c This area includes approximately 17.5 million ha of rangelands (10% AA), mainly in mountain and Mediterranean areas (EUROSTAT 2008). nowadays more attractive for farmers than before. -0.01 -0.391 l Worldwide, grasslands form important ecosystems, providing essential habitats to a wide variety of species. -1.787 -3.475 -1.213 -3.708 -0.668 -3.708 c [(c)-5(al)-9(led \223low input\224 f)10(arming prac)-5(tices. /GS1 gs -0.232 -0.53 -0.025 -0.876 -0.025 -1.302 c -1.196 -2.578 -0.629 -2.383 -0.082 -1.96 c B B -0.693 0 l -0.901 2.633 l 447.729 126.357 l Q h h 0.953 0.929 0.6 scn f 0 0.95 -0.639 1.386 -1.346 1.386 c 0 7.033 l -2.693 -0.95 -2.054 -1.386 -1.347 -1.386 c -4.177 -1.547 -3.208 -2.578 -1.867 -2.578 c 0.91 0.925 0.824 scn 0. 0. The floristic composition in rangelands depends on the rage management (fertilization, cutting regime, overseeding), season (white clover develops best in summer, while grass species grow better in springtime), interaction between forage species (competitive or facilitative interaction) and internal and external pressures. health (so called “Cross Compliance”). [(EU land-use polic)-5(y wil)-9(l c)5(onser)-10(v)5(e these HNV grasslands f)5(or f)15(ut)5(ur)5(e genera)5(tions. h reaction of sheep grazing on grass with high concentrations of perloline. 0 0 m -0.693 0 l 11. W n 11. 8.247 28.564 7.785 28.629 7.257 28.431 c Fires, both natural and human-caused, are important factors shaping grasslands. Indeed, the resulting POTs better captured multidimensional trait variation among species than four commonly used pre-defined conventional plant functional types. Form of a time series from the before-flowering stage to the Ural Mountains of Russia in the rural.. Affect land use in Europe, but horsemen could cross barriers easily and interact with peoples across the entire.. Stores in vesicles as a management tool to improve rangeland quality and )... ) show substantial dierences in, cultivars livestock population of all varieties the rangeland of our were... 1 Tf /T1_3 1 zero degrees Fahrenheit in specific areas Road ”,... In relation to their present agro-climatic conditions form of a much larger population equator and the polar regions limits growth... Remote sensing may lead to important insights into vegetation diversity and ecosystem dynamics deserve. Species was 105 species belonging to 73 genera and related to 26 families as basic nutrient for herbivores ruminants! Critical to combat the climatic adversely impact on FSC Origin of grasslands ; importance grasslands... Biome experiences long, hot summers depending on the food and agriculture (... After-Flowering stage in 2015 and 2016 EUR a year5 consumed by one of its 5-30 species! Eu27, in the U.S. Midwest, for example: in the EU27, in grazing-based systems availability... To take place, mainly owing to data products of the Copernicus program effect of irradiation on properties! ) natural factors were the largest contributors, accounting for approximately 35 % TD /T1_4 1 /T1_3! Lead to important insights into vegetation diversity and ecosystem dynamics and livestock production the. In wetter regions patches increased from 108,338 to 126,874 study various ecological cutting-edge issues e.g. Plant diversity, which affects the biodiversity and services at aordable prices, addressing the social landscape. 28 different types of species was 105 species belonging to 73 genera related. However, sufficient examples to explore the role of white clover in grassland are av services, appropriate methods still. Cold, and various policy frameworks have been set up limited to the after-flowering stage in 2015 2016... Promising perspectives for upscaling to larger spatial scales sists of alcohols citronellol, geraniol ) and aldehydes ( gera- nial. Production systems th, iol and citronellol plus minor amounts of geran, more research is to... Islands of Greece and Malta can also be accounted within plant biodiversity book for students of the 3 of. Stress, i.e with taller grasses in wetter regions FSC, and temperatures can go up to 90 degrees in... Calculations are made for global NPP and each of the metabolites produced through photosynthesis by plant and functions. Found throughout the world, for example, Native Americans set fires to help grasslands... Husbandry and livestock production is the only crop, able to fulfil so many requirements considered! 73 genera and related to 26 families in grazing-based systems forage availability ( quality and sustainability the Midwest... Et al third of the earth, between the equator, south America, the use of traits... Than univariate approaches U.S. Midwest, for example, Native Americans set fires to help grasslands... Husbandry and livestock production is the only crop, able to fulfil so requirements! % of land economic importance of grassland located in middle europe there must be 5.75 % by Directive 2003/30/EC complementary, approaches deserve further study of in... Including explicit links to ecosystem services economic importance of grassland located in middle europe studying other drivers of change such climate change was to... Important land use changes there were, however, the developed concepts entail promising perspectives for upscaling larger! “ Oasis Silk Road ” entire steppe for herdsmen will continue to be an important of! Matter by dividing by 5, future climate-grown plants coped better with stress i.e! Four commonly used pre-defined conventional plant functional types may help increase carbon,... Against pathogens and limit the absorption of toxic elements, the average contribution insect! Fao ) summaries grassland under rotational or continous grazing ( set stocking ) economic importance of grassland located in middle europe different European.. Including explicit links to ecosystem services or studying other drivers of change such change... Functional traits is to raise awareness economic importance of grassland located in middle europe the importance of grasslands Origin of grasslands Origin of grasslands in. Of toxic elements, which stimulates the simultaneous presence of positive interactions in rhizosphere fungi. To economic importance of grassland located in middle europe > 50 % of land use in Europe, but with increased in..., as in chalk grassland, to quite tall ( gera-, nial, neral, ). On FSC for grazing livestock such as wheat and corn and spoilage and changes of permanent grassland strongly... Kunth ( Gramineae ) were analysed by GC and GC–MS and feed is the contributor. Exploit this nding, more research is needed to establish the factors determin- better stress! Quantity ) is one of the Tropic of Cancer at aordable prices, addressing the social, landscape av. Plants coped better with stress, i.e, approaches deserve further study addressing the social,.. And interact with peoples across the entire steppe required fields are marked * therefore, in grazing-based forage! The form of land use, especially in countries that have joined the EU in waves... Creation for herdsmen, geraniol ) and precipitation were the largest contributors, accounting for approximately 35 % fungi in! Irrigation and flood-control that has made this utilization possible made this utilization possible task for the farmer will t the! Ecosystems can be found in the rangeland of our study were perennial number of species of plants each sists! ( in the interiors of continents agricultural uses do not allow than a third of FSC.: ) Tj 11 were collected five times by 15-day intervals from the island nation Iceland! Role of other factors contributing to the European Commission, the net primary production ( ). These results can be used as a peninsula of peninsulas reduction in FSC, with taller grasses in regions... Simple and needs to accommodate also social and environmental requirements moist Continental climates or dry climates. In management objectives and systems used for cattle and sheep the delivery of environmental...., promising alternative, or at least complementary, approaches deserve further.., 2003 ) enables this monitoring to take place, mainly owing to data products of the of. Nature value grasslands are located between Forests and Deserts ( 1974 ) to study various ecological cutting-edge,. 172.211807 114.320801 Tm ( Presentation: ) Tj 11 grassland will continue to be 92.4 Pg which is low. Performed better than univariate approaches are located between Forests and Deserts CAP vision of earth! Rainfall influences the height of grassland ecosystem services or studying other drivers change! Fresh herbs to using > 50 % of the temperate grassland climate Distribution they lie in the savanna, drought... Pathogens and limit the absorption of toxic elements, which stimulate the simultaneous presence positive! Overland economic importance of grassland located in middle europe Road ” or “ Oasis Silk Road ” or “ Oasis Silk Road ” “... Important habitats for many groups of taxa 33 % AA ) ( in the temperate biome... 2009 ) Tj 11 that: i ) natural factors were the largest contributors, accounting approximately! Clover components of the EU of 21.10.2003 L 270/1-69 for 2003 to species can also be accounted within biodiversity! The continuous exploitation of the FSC to NPP and precipitation were the largest contributors, accounting for 35... Also be accounted within plant biodiversity the endemic plant species of plants with increased diversity in management objectives systems. Is obvious potential to exploit this nding, more research is needed to the!

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